JOSHUA: Is the central figure in the Hebrew Bible’s Book of Joshua. According to the books of Exodus, Numbers and Joshua, he was Moses’ assistant and became the leader of the Israelite tribes after the death of Moses. His name was Hoshea the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but Moses called him Joshua (Numbers 13:16), the name by which he is commonly known. According to the Bible he was born in Egypt prior to the Exodus.
DAVID: Is described in the Hebrew Bible as the third king of the United Monarchy of Israel and Judah, after Ish-bosheth. In the biblical narrative, David is a young shepherd who gains fame first as a musician and later by killing the enemy champion Goliath. He becomes a favourite of King Saul. Worried that David is trying to take his throne, Saul turns on David. After Saul and his son Jonathan are killed in battle, David is anointed as King. David conquers Jerusalem, taking the Ark of the Covenant into the city, and establishing the kingdom founded by Saul. Before his peaceful death, he chooses his son Solomon as successor. He is honoured in the prophetic literature as an ideal king and the forefather of a future Messiah, and many psalms are ascribed to him.
JUDAS MACCABEUS: Was the third son of Mattathias the Hasmonean, a Jewish priest from the village of Modiin. In 167 BCE Mattathias, together with his sons Judah, Eleazar, Simon, John, and Jonathan, started a revolt against the Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who since 175 BCE had issued decrees that forbade Jewish religious practices. After Mattathias’s death in 166 BCE, Judah assumed leadership of the revolt in accordance with the deathbed disposition of his father. The First Book of Maccabees praises Judah’s valour and military talent, suggesting that those qualities made Judah a natural choice for the new commander.
KING ARTHUR: also called Arthur Pendragon, was a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. The details of Arthur’s story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and modern historians generally agree that he is unhistorical. The sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, and the writings of Gildas. Arthur’s name also occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin.
CHARLEMAGNE: or Charles the Great (2 April 748 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was king of the Franks from 768, king of the Lombards from 774, and emperor of the Romans from 800. During the Early Middle Ages, he united the majority of western and central Europe. He was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian Empire. He was later canonized by Antipope Paschal III.
GODFREY OF BOUILLON: (18 September 1060 – 18 July 1100) was one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099. He was the lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076 and the duke of Lower Lorraine from 1087. After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He refused the title of king, however, as he believed that the true king of Jerusalem was Jesus Christ, preferring the title of advocate (i.e., protector or defender) of the Holy Sepulchre. He is also known as the “baron of the Holy Sepulchre” and the “crusader king”.